Noam Chomsky Myers-Brigs type - MBTI, enneagram and personality type info
I deduced you were inferring that his career was INTPish. I think if you read the whole exchange you will come to the conclusion that he truly is an INTP. (3) He is not "impartial" in his political philosophy. They are extroverted, idealistic, charismatic, outspoken, highly principled and ethical, and usually know how to connect!. Funny thing the interviewer asked him the same question. See the fallacy. Chomsky, however, had no interest in debating Harris about misunderstandings and only responded to correct ways Harris misunderstood him (which only made him more convinced a public debate would be unfruitful). It's an odd choice of words to use to describe him. In his personal life most people describe him as pretty gentle and diffident. I see him as INFJ. But for him, the key reason he's so convicted in his beliefs is not because they are logical, but because they are ethical (in his view). (Though both types can do both). This is not a consistent approach. Instead we get a very impassioned and fiery essay that actually fails to address what Dershowitz claims is the “BIG[gest] lie” the letter made (that it claims Israel wants to eradicate the Palestinians). org/blog/item/the-limits-of-discourse(5) Non-inferior Fe evidence: Glenn Greenwald on Chomsky’s demeanor: "Far from being some sort of brutal, domineering, and angry "alpha-male" savage, Chomsky - no matter your views of him - is one of the most soft-spoken and unfailingly civil and polite political advocates on the planet. They wouldn't accept things going wrong for them and will hold on to the vision. ” Are you sure the fact you agree with Chomsky isn’t making you think he’s more impartial than he is. It is not an anti-INTP thing to explain in detail why you won't bother responding to someone's rubbish. Again, zizka, you continue to lie about what I say. When I say right, I mean logically deduced. He brings a level of precision and intuitive understanding to every topic he approaches as an INTP would. Regarding your “The key with typing Chomsky…” comment, he doesn’t just lose his patience over lack of logical standards, otherwise he would focus much more on reinforcing those logical standards than on fiercely standing up for the weak and those who he believes have the moral high ground. LOL what, INFJ. Anyone who voted INFJ must have never heard him speak. He relies heavily upon quotations, but rarely identifies the speaker or writer. You're just inconsistent. " "We don't want to be swayed by superficial eloquence, by emotion and so on. Since INTPs are Ti-Dom and Fe-inf they would probably keep ethical justifications to a minimum and focus on showing inconsistencies in the counterarguments in an impersonal, intellectually honest, dispassionate manner. The MBTI questionnaire sorts people into one of 16 different personality types.. The Guardian said of Chomsky's debating ability, "His boldness and clarity infuriates opponents—academe is crowded with critics who have made twerps of themselves taking him on. I can’t imagine an intellectually honest INTP who specifically sets out to show his intellectual superiority would just gloss over the single biggest counterargument and instead focus on making personal attacks. (3) Also, in regards to the Dershowitz thing, I see a double standard: how come when a conservative (Roger Scruton) tries to show Chomsky is a biased provocateur you say he’s just trying to “smear” Chomsky and that nothing he says holds weight, but when Chomsky does the exact same thing (except in a much more impassioned, fiery manner) to Dershowitz, Chomsky is “intellectually honestly revealing Dershowitz to be intellectually dishonest” and that Dershowitz’s arguments are “rubbish. I mean he looks at geopolitics through an unbiased perspective and shows minimal bias because he doesn't jump to conclusions. And I don't know what you are saying in response to my "the key with" comment because he is exactly trying to reinforce the logical standards in the debate that we were referencing. Even when his position is right, he is still not neutral at all to say the very least. Go and quote where I supposedly was arguing linguistics as an INTP subject, and until then, make yourself scarce. And far from being devoid of hope, it's almost impossible to find an establishment critic more passionate and animated when talking about the ability of people to join together to create real social and political change. (As if it's impossible for the offending party to rephrase their theory in non-contradictory terms or something. This is more a a stubborn, driven Ni approach. Sounds like he just doesn't agree with you. Of all the introverted intuitive types, INFJ makes the least sense by far. Roger Scruton on the two different Chomskies: http://www. In INTP vs INTJ debates, INTP are often criticised for being hyper-critical of others theories but that is because they look first to get down to the underlying logic within them, and judge them on their own merit with Ti. Its not strawmanning when it proves a point. I thought Chomsky was a clear cut case of an INFJ intellectual. org/blog/item/the-limits-of-discourseRead this exchange: http://www. Ventus, are you even familiar with Chomsky. It's just that I oppose cherry picked quotes of other people's description of Chomsky. What is the best option for the MBTI type of Noam Chomsky? What about enneagram and other personality types?. You asked us to look at what Chomsky does outside political commentary which I assumed is his work of linguistics. An INTP would've changed the goal five times before the first publication. Care to elaborate how his take on linguistics is INTPish. Bill Clinton's humanitarian rationale for the Kosovo war was ridiculed 'by leading military and political analysts' in Israel, we are told, but the citation leads only to an earlier book by Chomsky himself. But he doesn’t. I'm not here to challenge your views and dogmas. One thing he's not is INFJ though. Now, if your point was Chomsky usually isn’t as fiery as he is in that essay I linked, then yes, he obviously is very calm and well-reasoned in the debate. I think at the very least, his Ne-aux is quite clear, and if your argument is that "he cannot be Ne-aux because that would require either inferior thinking or feeling function" I could point to examples of INxP that don't show a strong preference in either direction. " *Again, even if Dershowitz is 100% wrong and Chomsky is 100% right, you can't deny that Chomsky's *manner of rebuttal* seems very, very unlike what one would expect from a Ti-dom. Seems like you have a personal stake in defending Chomsky which would be great on a political forum. You are also flawed in your argument when you clearly favour Chomsky over his opponents. But even then each type would go about arguing for the "truth" in a different way. Well, that published exchange with Harris makes him look more INTP than I thought possibleI will say, just as a general response to Ventus's posts, that it seems to be more of a Fi type passion that he is arguing for rather than a Fe one. and you'll see what I mean. (BTW I’m not saying your political beliefs aren’t impartial—in fact, there probably are impartial ways to arrive at them—all I’m saying is that Chomsky’s manner of arriving at them isn’t impartial). It would have been a strawman had he not said that. It's filled with fiery language and ad hominem. Even if not directly tested, public voting can provide good accuracy regarding Noam Chomsky Myers-Briggs and personality type!. As a matter of fact, you can say it is Si, how he meticulously works from his bank of facts. Boldness, clarity, boring speaker, "don't want to be swayed. I am pointing to the inconsistent approach he takes in using media reports. He is so IMPARTIAL to each side that he operates with no blinders, putting himself at odds with certain mainstream political movements. I don't you know what strawman means especially the way you're using it. See my point 5. This is Chomsky's response to Alan Dershowitz' picking-apart of a letter Chomsky signed that dishonestly portrayed Israel as a villain. "I firmly disagree that one should disregard Chomsky's political arguments when typing him since they're a key part of his personality and, unlike linguistics, are not dependent on his T function. Don't worry - yours wasn't a special strawman that did. Ie Ti-Ne-Si-Fe. " In response to his speaking style being criticized as boring, Chomsky said, "I'm a boring speaker and I like it that way. When he agrees with a claim, Chomsky introduces it with the word 'uncontroversially' or credits it to 'distinguished authorities. Have to get to work now. This would be anti-Fe. " I agree, but let's dig a little deeper. Isabel Briggs Myers, a researcher and practitioner of Jung’s theory, proposed to see the judging-perceiving relationship as a fourth dichotomy influencing personality type.. I don't know where do you see his impartiality when even he doesn't claim it. Turning that into "all media is controlled" is intellectually dishonest rubbish. Note also his linguistic program: in five decades the goal remained the same (the ultimate grammar). He looks at ideologies as a product of underlying principles first and foremost. And lol@refusing to look at the arguments of the other side. He relies on media reports that help his points but reject others which oppose his point. More specifically, where passion actually shapes his ideology more than what can be expected of a typical INTP. This is true even in politics; examine any INTP political theorist, president, economist, etc.
. I didn't cite the article to make a political statement but to show how he thinks. Yes in his exchange with Harris he looks incredibly INTP. , Christopher Hitchens, George Lakoff, Richard Perle, Hilary Putnam, Willard Van Orman Quine, John Maynard Smith, and Alan Dershowitz, to name a few. But really it's just the presence of a dominant judging function (Ti) paired with Ne-aux. com/Noam-chomsky-chomsky-zizek-debate-annotatedWait his political ideology has a type. @scotty yeah I too have noticed a fair number of INFJ votes for Chomsky recently, and if they indeed are troll votes they should be removed. Strawmen don't prove points. What happened to forum posters who actually watched him speak. htmland if you're going to insist on typing him as an F type he'd be INFP. com/articles/SB115922160207573526 Please don't try to induce my political beliefs from this post, in fact my opinion of Chomsky is irrelevant to this discussion. I'm open to better arguments but remain an INFJ vote and don't see how Chomsky is impartial and dispassionate. Regardless if you're an idiot or not, you're a stone cold liar. Its a common thread, all his opponents accuse him blindly supporting a party which is line with his position. )Not that an INTP would ever settle on an explicit goal. In politics there will always be people out there trying to assassinate someone's character so that you don't listen to their opinions. See the fallacy. I'm voting INFJ for now. Even if Scruton is ideologically 100% wrong and Chomsky is ideologically 100% right, Scruton's observations about Chomsky's manner of forming his political arguments remain the same. "he believes all media is controlled" - classic strawman. I actually personally met him at a gathering and I can say INFJ is not completely absurd typing. If you are to argue for a strong feeling function, it would have to be Fi and not Fe because he does not approach anything from a practical advocacy angle, being completely comfortable keeping his ramblings confined within academia, and really being more focused with correcting flawed reasoning and giving his own interpretation of events rather than building a cohesive philosophy from scratch or definitive solutions, which would be expected from an Ni-dom. Chomsky isn't like that. Tell me if you believe both Noam and Harris share the same type and why. For the record despite the impression I may have given I'm actually a left-leaning centrist, not a conservative. Discover Array, and more, famous people, fictional characters and celebrities here!. "We need room to discuss and debate here without being bogged down with personal political opinions. Read this exchange: http://www. And even in linguistics, he doesn't seem to be that sure of what his endpoints look like, but he concerns himself more with steering the debate in the right direction. It's true that his critiques of those who wield power and influence can be withering - that's the central function of an effective critic or just a human being with a conscience - but one would be hard-pressed to find someone as prominent as he who is as steadfastly polite and considerate and eager to listen when it comes to interacting with those who are powerless and voiceless. I am still not voting yet but INTP is seeming more and more plausible the more I think about it. The biggest leap being that you somehow attributed the logic to me being that of "Linguistics is an INTP field" rather than "Chomsky's attitude on the subject of linguistics is INTP". :PIn fact he does just what you say he doesn't (showing inconsistencies in the counterarguments in an impersonal, intellectually honest, dispassionate manner). This points me towards Ti because my INTP friend also debates in a very level-headed demeanor. I really don't even know where this "morally impassioned" thing came from. That's why you have to go straight from the horse's mouth to actually attempt to type him based on his politics. That is simply not an Ni approach, no matter what way you want to look at it. Don't try to interpret my political beliefs when I say that open-mindedness never struck me as his strong suit. ” Like I’ve been saying all along in this debate, even if Chomsky is completely right, he doesn’t defend his points in a manner that suggests that he is a Ti-dom (i. All Chomsky is trying to prove is that Dershowitz is a provocateur that is only concerned with pushing his own agenda rather than discussing topics with intellectual honesty. Zizka, there is no point of lying about what I said.
. If you only look at Chomsky as a linguist then you won't get a full picture of his personality. Let's go back to something you said earlier in the thread: that an INTP would be impassioned too if he knew he was "right. ' Those who don't share his viewpoint don't simply disagree; they are the 'prevailing intellectual culture' or the 'educated classes. Ventus in the Woodrow Wilson comments: "INFJs are very smart and profound but are characterized by their counselor-like willingness to compromise, understand other people, and touch others' lives. If this was Chomsky’s attempt to prove that Dershowitz is a dishonest provocateur, then I wouldn’t peg him as a Ti-dom Fe-inferior. People are interested in the issues, and they're interested in the issues because they are important. Everything so darn obvious to them that their their respective opponents would want to throw something at them. And the frustrated Chomsky loses his patience. Note I only care about how he formed them, why he believes them, and how he champions/expresses them; I don't care about what they are. And it's the thought behind it which he focuses in on, rather than its utility. I've witnessed a lot of INTP vs INTJ debates and Chomsky clearly is on the side of INTP which I am now entirely convinced about. In doing so, he is comfortable constraining himself within the walls of academia where he tears down theories at their core. I have had my fair share of debates with INFJs and they are not that level headed. It proves cherry picking. But maybe its not that clear. Well, that's a large leap, Zizka. The quotes you provide suggest that he *debates* like an INTP but like I said, debating style doesn’t necessarily say much about type since it’s a formal setting. He actually explained quite clearly the faults of certain media, based on how they didn't even cover certain true stories. A few points: (1) Inductive reasoning, all else being equal, is actually more Te than Ti. Most rational types tend to take the same "sides" he does, and he always defends his positions with impressive rationality to the point where it seems at least that he derived his positions through rationalization rather than through dogma. Just not here. Ventus, like I said before, he has plenty of material you can read yourself that you really don't have to quote other people on his argumentation style, when you can just read his exchanges with Harris and Zizek for starters. He is intelligent and mature and one of the greatest modern intellectuals but he never was a non partisan, non aligned one. Thinking – Feeling, represents how a person processes information. Thinking means that a person makes a decision mainly through logic.. Haven't voted yet though. Here you can explore of famous people and fictional characters.. If Chomsky was trying to show Dershowitz was a “provocateur” and “intellectually dishonest" and he was a Ti-dom Fe-inferior, I’d expect his attempt to “lay down the truth” to be more dispassionate and analytical, even though of course he has to come out and say he believes Dershowitz is a provocateur. I also disagree that being conservative invalidates Scruton's viewpoints, but since you do, I'll drop that point. The key with typing Chomsky is that he processes everything individually and digs down to the root. I doubt that people are attracted to whatever the persona is. Since they brought different baggage and aims to the discussion, it’s reasonable to assume that they’d approach things differently regardless of their types. " -- Which was why I initially suggested keeping politics out of it. Actually I think he's INTJ like Richard Rorty. I never argued you can't mate a type with political foresights. Sorry if that wasn't the point. I don't think posting an article that quotes some of his opponents throwing ad hominems is a convincing argument. ” (6) Chomsky is extremely intelligent and thus, no matter if he’s INTP or INFJ, will have more powerful Ti than most Ti-doms. (2) Whether or not most "rational" types agree with him is irrelevant since, as you say, political ideologies don't have a type. Your comments are getting childish now so I choose to ignore them. When I say impartial, I don't mean that he's accepting of dumb arguments and illogical sides. To him his opponents are never right, mostly morally. It points out the way Chomsky forms his political arguments. So during the whole exchange Harris tried to keep polite and open-minded so as to remain cordial and clear things up as if the debate were public. Look in the INTP vs INTJ threads scattered over the internets. Chomsky's arguments, by contrast, suggest that he knows he is "right" for primarily ethical reasons that he then backs up with supporting logic. One thing I’d definitely expect if Chomsky were INTP (since INTPs are Ti-dom and thus unlikely to be convinced by anything but sound logic) is that his highest priority would be to prove *logically* that Dershowitz is a provocateur and intellectually dishonest. Also, like I said before, take the politics out of it and look at what he said in other fields where people aren't going to try to smear him. http://genius. He is definitely an IN though. If you're using function loop crap, maybe, but that's just because his Ti is so strongly overwhelming Ne. The latter I'd agree with, but your attempt to frame me as being hypocritical is idiotic. Giving the vibe that Chomsky is right and his opponents are wrong thus their opinion of him doesn't matter. -----Yeah, you made it, it's called a "strawman". I feel that his take on the subject is very Ni-like. You see him in a debate and you will observe that he is the most level-headed debater ever. Especially with the sort of critique that Chomsky is somewhat ignoring the external world and instead too far soaked into theory, which would seem to lean to INxP. But anyway watch that Youtube video I talked about and you will see that it is not Chomsky's natural style to respond in that manner, but he just wanted to put it on the record. He has a clear preference for inductive reasoning, which is correctly identified as Ti and then used by function magicians to type him as INFJ due to "Ni", even though Ne is obvious in how he has a strong history of creating his own theories from pretty much scratch to be consistent with empirically verifiable facts and processes. But one has to look at the whole. What a damn silly typing. That leaves INTJ and INFJ and though I could see Fi at a level, I find his contrast with Dershowitz to show he prefers Ti over Te and I find his tendency to reliably side with the weak and draw moral equivalencies between people that do not always seem equivalent to show Fe over Fi. The point that Chomsky isn't impartial. So I'd disagree that Chomsky primarily "logically deduces" his beliefs and defends them by "showing inconsistencies in the counterarguments in an impersonal, intellectually honest, dispassionate manner. (2) I disagree with your reasoning on the Dershowitz thing. Another crazy notion of mine: especially when you're a philosopher dismissing a theory because of inconsistencies can be Te rather that Ti. any opposing data ptoduced by media is "controlled by the governments". an INFJ he is not. By the way I agree, the actual viewpoints Chomsky holds are irrelevant here. Compare with someone like Harris, a prominent Fe user who is perfectly at home in that arena. You're correct in identifying his Ti, I think, but he seems much too singularly focused, morally impassioned, and closed-off to opposing views to be INTP. "Thank you, Typer. But Chomsky never comes from a position of neutrality. Ventus, about his exchanges with Dershowitz, it may help to understand the history between them. You are in the best place to test MBTI and learn what type Noam Chomsky likely is!. This is easy to read and understand. @scotty - The problem is Chomsky's politics are such an important part of his personality that you can't really ignore them. Also, inductive reasoning is known to be more of the INTP way while INTJ more deductive. Regardless of whether you agree or disagree with his politics it's clear that precise, INTPish linguistics-Chomsky and stubborn, morally impassioned politics-Chomsky are two very different beasts. His humanism is legion. com/guess-type/603898-noam-chomsky. @Typer yes they do not seem to take the same approach in that exchange. ' This is a thinker far too accustomed to preaching to an uncritical choir. as well as why I don't care what someone in Murdoch's rag says about him. Like derekap98 I can see INFJ, INTJ, and INFP (maybe). Is it "intellectually honest. INTJ are much more comfortable applying the theories they like to achieve results they like (a somewhat large generalization, but Chomsky tends to divorce himself from any theory and pick out small tidbits from within them). I think you may find him more dispassionate if you agree with his ideology. When he believes all media is controlled, then how come his use of that same media yo prove HIS point, proves his impartiality. There's a new troll every day pretty much signing up to vote INFJ. The introverted function is what defines the introvert above all, and Chomsky above all puts his value on thought process and consistency, above the creation of encompassing philosophy which is ready for action. Watch him in the Youtube video "Dershowitz vs Chomsky debate Israel at Harvard". Basically, that Dershowitz isn't your definition of INTP (which coincidentally works as he's an ExTJ). Why don't you read or listen to Chomsky's arguments rather than listen to what a conservative in Rupert Murdoch's rag says about how he forms his arguments. (4) What you quote me saying from the Woodrow Wilson page was a heuristic and though it’s true in general it’s actually not true for all INFJs especially ones convicted in their visions, in fact this comment by impeccable on the Wilson page is on point: "INFJs yield in personal matters but are extremely non compromising in their vision. "It actually was pretty rash and unwarranted for me to leave the debate then, especially since (a) I wasn’t the target of the sour comments and (b) I completely forgot to watch the Dershowitz-Chomsky debate (not very intellectually honest of me :P ) so I apologize and I’m re-entering the debate now after having watched it. From Wikipedia (Chomsky#Debates): Chomsky has been known to defend vigorously and debate his views and opinions, in philosophy, linguistics (Linguistics Wars), and politics. I might be an idiot but you were hypocritical in a sense, implying that his take on linguistics is INTPish but then argued that you can't mate a type with his political foresights. We need room to discuss and debate here without being bogged down with personal political opinions. It's filled with straw man arguments, doesn't even respond to Dershowitz's most salient criticism, and seems much more interested in attacking Dershowitz's character (fiercely) than in addressing the criticisms Dershowitz had. If not INFJ, then he is INTJ or maybe INFP, but I seriously doubt INTP. These long debates just tend to be exhausting lolI guess though if Ventus wants to resume I could respond. In this site you can find out which of the 16 types this character 'Noam Chomsky' belongs to!. I'm not voting yet because I am still on the fence about him. This is evident since his political arguments are always morally impassioned but sometimes draw moral equivalences and occasionally cherry pick and make up facts to paint the picture Chomsky wants people to believe. Chomsky has a definite agenda, he is a clear partisan. In fact one could argue that his success in spreading his message is in no small part because of the fact that he is impassioned, stubborn, singular, and convicted but not dispassionate at all. When an INTP knows they're right, they are going to be very stubborn too. Zero charisma, just well formulated ideas grounded in facts and observations. I think you did admit earlier that he can arrive at those conclusions from an impartial basis, so I don't know why you have returned to the "fiercely standing up for the weak" line as you have already basically conceded it is a non-argument. Ventus, watch the damn debateSince the debate seems to have turned combative and sour I think I'll check out for now. Also saying "very Ni-ish" means nothing. info/letters/20060817. Scroll down and tell me what you disagree with out of what I've already said. I understand that he he comes across as very NF like but some INTPs share many values NFs do. I posted it to show the difference between him (INTP) and Harris (INFJ). he doesn’t primarily focus on reinforcing logical standards, contrary to what you think). Well of course, everyone thought he was INTP. Although Chomsky’s frequent arguments that work ‘in a vacuum’ and Dershowitz’ frequent anger that he’s not looking at the external environment seem to show Ti vs. You aren't wrong. INTPs for the most part might be neutral to right and wrong and more likely be interested in truth and fallacy. You did say that Chomsky's political commentary shouldn't be used to point his type but you feel okay saying his style of work in linguistics is INTPish. Rest assured I'll counterargue all your points when I get time. Especially when I explained in general terms what it was about how he attacked intellectual subjects that made me think he was an INTP. I thought his INTJ self-assuredness was obvious. So I stay with INFJ. In his debate with Zizek he makes his distaste for "theory", basically academic garble with no logical backbone, very clear. Quoted from zizka:. The endnotes supply more frustration. The thing that really makes his INTPness clear to me is how he tends to advocate for certain ways of thinking about things, rather than clearly defined ideologies. I don't know where they come from but I've given up this one. Welcome to MBTIBase - PersonalityBase, here you can learn about Noam Chomsky MBTI type.. Quiet, reflective, and idealistic. Interested in serving humanity. Well-developed value system, which they strive to live in accordance with.. If you enjoyed this entry, find out about the personality types of Writers characters list.. But debating style doesn’t really say much about types because it’s a formal setting. :-) Six points: (1) Beyond the fact that Dershowitz seems extroverted while Chomsky seems introverted, it’s hard to glean anything significant about their types just from that debate. Harris wanted to have a public debate with Chomsky regarding misconceptions about each other; Chomsky didn’t. INFJs are visionaries and idealists who ooze creative imagination and brilliant ideas.. " This attribute of INFJ is exactly why Chomsky cannot be one. What's funny is scotty has a good point with the INTP typing.  He has had notable debates with Jean Piaget, Michel Foucault, William F. If he has a Ne/Si axis he’d be an INFP, though I’m also convinced that Chomsky is not a T-inferior. So which one is it. Can you provide actual proof of his "impassioned politics". http://personalitycafe. Scotty is arguing linguistics is an INTP subject as if a subject has a type and then disagrees that political stances don't attract certain types. The article doesn't just quote ad hominems. Zizka, are you incapable of reading. He only borrows data that suits him, any opposing data ptoduced by media is "controlled by the governments". Any type will be impassioned if he/she is utterly convicted that he/she had seen the "truth" and some people weren't listening. Samantha Power on Chomsky’s argument style: "Chomsky's glib and caustic tone is distracting. And honestly, since so much character association is used in the world of politics, why are we even looking at politics to type him, much less quoting a Wall Street Journal article which references impassioned non-reasoning. But if that's too much for you to handle, look at what he's done outside of politics, and tell me where this strong "Fe" or "Ni" is. I can live with INFP but it seems the thing that gets him off track is when he feels like he is in an arena where logical standards aren't being enforced. That said I think if I were typing them on that exchange alone, I would indeed assume they are different types with Harris more Fe and Chomsky more Ti. There's clear INFJ's, borderline INFJ's and then Noam Chomsky, a clear theoretical, Ti-dominant in every regard. To quote what I said earlier, "In fact he does just what you say he doesn't (showing inconsistencies in the counterarguments in an impersonal, intellectually honest, dispassionate manner). htm - Is it "impersonal" or "dispassionate. Intelligence and impartial analysis are mutually exclusive. An INTP would (as a Ti dom) know that he is "right" since he carefully and dispassionately analyzed the issues and came to viewpoints that made logical sense.